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The Fire Safety Engineering Group

Selected Publications

TITLE:
Integrating personnel movement simulation into preliminary ship design.

AUTHORS:
Andrews, D., Casarosa, L., Deere, Steven, Galea, Edwin R., Lawrence, Peter and Pawling, R.

JOURNAL:
International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 150 (A1). pp. 19-34, 2008. ISSN 1479-8751

DESCRIPTION:
This publication resulted from EPSRC project EGO (GR/T22100/01), a collaboration with UCL (GR/T22117/01) and UK MoD. It contributed to PhD’s for Deere (2011), Casarosa (2011) and Pawling (2007) and also won the 2008 RINA Samuel Baxter Prize for best IJME paper on safety. The work contributed to two EU FP7 projects, SAFEGUARD (SCP7-GA-2009-218493) and FIREPROOF (contract 218761) concerning evacuation from large passenger ships. It introduces for the first time a capability to incorporate human factors into early ship design. FSEG are in discussion with allied navies to adapt the approach for their use.

TITLE:
Fire and evacuation analysis in BWB aircraft configurations: computer simulations and large-scale evacuation experiment.

AUTHORS:
Galea, Edwin R., Filippidis, Lazaros, Wang, Zhaozhi and Ewer, John

JOURNAL:
Aeronautical Journal , 114 (1154). pp. 271-277, 2010. ISSN 0001-9240

DESCRIPTION:
This publication won the 2011 bronze award for best paper to appear in the RAeJ. The work was widely publicised in the technical press (Flight International, The Engineer). The paper was the culmination of two projects EU FP 5 project VELA (GRD1-2001-40140) and EU FP6 IP NACRE (AIP4-CT-2005-516068) and lead to a new EU FP7 project AIRCRAFTFIRE (contract 265612) concerned with fire/evacuation analysis in new composite aircraft. The work has been applied to three aviation design projects associated with evacuation, a B747 VIP aircraft, the new C-Series regional-jet and a new concept passenger jet aircraft.

TITLE:
The UK 9/11 evacuation study: analysis of survivors’ recognition and response phase in WTC1.

AUTHORS:
McConnell, N.C., Boyce, K.E. Shields, J., Galea, Edwin R., Day, Rachel and Hulse, Lynn

JOURNAL:
Fire Safety Journal, 45 (1). pp. 21-34, 2010. ISSN 0379-7112

DESCRIPTION:
This publication resulted from EPSRC project HEED (GR/S74201/01, EP/D507790), a collaboration between Greenwich, Ulster, Liverpool Universities into 911. The project resulted in the development of the High-rise Evacuation Evaluation Database, a unique on-line database identifying human behaviour in high-rise evacuation. HEED is freely available to international researchers/engineers/legislators to explore and utilise in building design/research projects. The database was used by Dr Erica Kuligowski of NIST as the basis of her PhD. The techniques developed in HEED led to a new EU FP7 project BeSeCu (contract 218324, http://www.besecu.de/) concerned with evacuation behaviour in buildings and a new KTP (KTP009153).

TITLE:
Investigating evacuation lift dispatch strategies using computer modelling.

AUTHORS:
Kinsey, M.J., Galea, E.R., and Lawrence, P.J.,

JOURNAL:
Fire and Materials, Vol 36, pp399 - 415, 2012, DOI: 10.1002/fam.1086

DESCRIPTION:
This publication explored the use of lifts for highrise building evacuation through computer simulation. It was funded by an EPSRC studentship resulting in a PhD for Kinsey (2011). The work also resulted in the development of a general lift modelling component for use in the commercial software buildingEXODUS increasing the scope of application of the software. The work also demonstrated that mixed stair-elevator evacuation strategy can result in optimal evacuation times informing the use of lift evacuation strategies proposed for use in modern highrise buildings and informed the development of lift evacuation standards.

TITLE:
Approximating the evacuation of the World Trade Center north tower using computer simulation.

AUTHORS:
Galea, Edwin R., Sharp, Gary, Lawrence, Peter and Holden, R.,

JOURNAL:
Fire and Materials, Vol 36, pp399 - 415, 2012, DOI: 10.1002/fam.1086

DESCRIPTION:
This publication resulted from EPSRC funded HEED project (GR/S74201/01, EP/D507790), a collaboration between Greenwich, Ulster, Liverpool Universities. Paper presents simulation analysis of the 9/11 evacuation. It successfully reproduced the evacuation, providing important insight into the complex evolving evacuation dynamics of the North Tower, provided further validation evidence for the internationally used buildingEXODUS evacuation simulation software and demonstrated the practical limitations of full building evacuation of high-rise buildings by stairs alone identifying the need for evacuation lifts. This led to further research on modelling lift evacuation with an EPSRC PhD studentship for Michael Kinsey (2011).

TITLE:
Investigating the representation of merging behavior at the floor-stair interface in computer simulations of multi-floor building evacuations.

AUTHORS:
Galea, Edwin R., Lawrence, Peter and Sharp, Gary

JOURNAL:
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 18 (4), 2008. pp. 291-316. ISSN 1042-3915

DESCRIPTION:
This publication resulted from the EPSRC funded project HEED (GR/S74201/01, EP/D507790) which was a collaboration between Greenwich, Ulster, Liverpool Universities. The paper demonstrated for the first time the importance of merging behaviours and deference behaviours on stairs in highrise buildings during evacuation. It has contributed to the validation of the commercial software buildingEXODUS increasing its appeal for building design analysis. Questions raised by this work has led to several research projects concerning human factors associated with movement on stairs in the USA, UK and Korea.

TITLE:
A Systematic Methodology to Assess the Impact of Human Factors in Ship Design.

AUTHORS:
Deere, S., Galea, E.R., Lawrence, P.,

JOURNAL:
Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33, 867-883, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2007.12.014

DESCRIPTION:
This publication resulted from EPSRC project EGO (GR/T22100/01) a collaboration with UCL (GR/T22117/01) and UK MoD resulting in a PhD for Deere (2011). It represents the first example of extending ship based evacuation simulation to generalised personnel movement in normal operations. It provided the basis of two EU FP7 funded projects, SAFEGUARD (SCP7-GA-2009-218493) and FIREPROOF (218761) concerning evacuation from large passenger ships. The approach described in this paper has been implemented in the commercial software maritimeEXODUS and FSEG are in discussion with allied navies is being adapted for their use.

TITLE:
Experimental Analysis of the Effectiveness of Emergency Signage and its Implementation in Evacuation Simulation

AUTHORS:
Xie, H., Filippidis, L., Galea, E.R., Blackshields, D., and Lawrence P.

JOURNAL:
Fire and Materials, Vol 36, pp367-382, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fam.1095

DESCRIPTION:
This publication explored how people interact with signage during evacuation and for the first time quantified the likelihood that signs are detected. The work has implications for both building regulations and evacuation model development/applications. The work was selected as one of the best papers in the 4th HBIF conference for inclusion in the journal special edition and contributed to the award of a PhD for Xie (2011). The work also assisted in the development of an innovative signage system by EVACLITE and a new EU FP7 funded three year project (GETAWAY 265717) to test the concept.

TITLE:
Numerical investigation of tube furnace toxicity measurement method (ISO 19700).

AUTHORS:
Mahalingam, A., Jia, Fuchen, Wang, Zhaozhi, Patel, Mayur and Galea, Edwin R.

JOURNAL:
Fire and Materials, Vol 36, pp 17-30, 2012, DOI 10.1002/fam.1079

DESCRIPTION:
This publication demonstrated for the first time the use of CFD tools to predict the fire environment within the tube furnace setup (ISO 19700) and demonstrate its impact on the accuracy of toxicity measurements for low and well ventilated conditions. The impact of the work lies in better understanding the ISO test method and its applicability. The secondary quenching effect identified was instrumental in ensuring that the operating conditions need to be controlled to ensure “real condition” toxicity values of fire products. The work lead to a PhD for A. Mahalingam (2008).

TITLE:
Predicting toxic gas concentrations at locations remote from the fire source.

AUTHORS:
Wang, Zhaozhi, Jia, Fuchen, Galea, Edwin R. and Patel, Mayur

JOURNAL:
Fire and Materials, Vol 35, pp 505-526, 2011. DOI: 10.1002/fam.1069

DESCRIPTION:
The key impact of this research is the improvement in prediction accuracy of toxicity and hence life safety remote from the fire. The newly developed methodology is implemented within the SMARTFIRE CFD software enhancing its usability as an engineering tool. The ability to predict toxic species remote from the fire source enabled the authors to win the EU FP7 project AIRCRAFTFIRE (265612), in which SMARTFIRE is used to investigate the impact of fire on evacuation in aircraft. The technique is being enhanced to accommodate new composite materials found in the next generation of aircraft.

TITLE:
Understanding the Effectiveness of Notification Technologies in Assisting Vulnerable Populations.

AUTHORS:
Gwynne, S.M.V., Boswell, D.L., and Proulx, G.,

JOURNAL:
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, vol 19, pp 31-49, 2009.

DESCRIPTION:
This paper provided a metric to understand population vulnerabilities when responding to incident notification and procedural measures to address them. It was part of an NFPA-funded project. This was to assist NFPA to develop guidance for procedural/technology design and to inform NFPA code development. The work has influenced NFPA committee discussions regarding code modifications, related work (e.g. US government projects on notification system design), is included in SFPE Engineering Handbook and in professional courses by the SFPE and the ICC.

TITLE:
Questioning the Linear Relationship between Doorway Width and Achievable Flow Rate

AUTHORS:
Gwynne, S.M.V., Kuligowski, E.D., Kratchman, J., and Milke, J.A.,

JOURNAL:
Fire Safety Journal, v44, pp 80-87, 2009.

DESCRIPTION:
This paper was suggested by Dr Harold Nelson, an innovator in the field (formerly of NIST and Hughes Associates,Inc., now deceased). It involves using material provided by Dr. J.J.Fruin (retired, New York Transport Authority) regarding movement data from several locations (including the World Trade Centre) to quantify a previously undocumented impediment upon pedestrian flow (door-leaf configuration), which might lead to optimistic egress assumptions. This effort is described in the SFPE Handbook chapter on egress and has influenced the recent development of the New Zealand design regulations.

TITLE:
Representing evacuation behavior in engineering terms

AUTHORS:
Gwynne, S, Kuligowski, E, and Nilsson, D,

JOURNAL:
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 22(2), 133-150, Sage, 2012.

DESCRIPTION:
This paper covered material produced from discussions at ISO TC92/SC4/WG1 regarding the development of occupant scenarios. This provided a framework for developing evacuation scenarios during engineering analysis. The authors originally contributed concepts to committee meetings and then developed them further here. This work has been embedded within broader guidance produced by National Institute of Standards and Technology, with the effort continuing at BRANZ - Building Research Association of New Zealand.